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Before we begin with this interesting topic on education reforms in ” Tanzania since independence “, let start by finding out what the word reform means. After which we can now relate it to education and then bring in our dear country Tanzania into the big picture.


We have several definitions of the word reform and we are going to be looking at a few of them.

a reform can be defined as a means of improving or an amendment of what appears to be wrong or needs urgency in correction due to unsatisfactory motives Or we can also say or add that a reform can simply be defined as a basic means or radial change from a present form of improvement.


The word reform shares a similarity to the word revolution which also signifies change from a current state of wrong to a more reformed or better one.


The reason we need reform or should I say the education sector in Tanzania needs reform is due to it deplorable state which isn’t encouraging

so therefore

a need to improve the system brings about the need for a total reformation plan. But funny enough this isn’t only similar to Tanzania but to many developing nations most especially Africa at large and few part of Asia too but not all. Although many of this developing nations get support from international financial institutions and aid agencies. But as they say, charity should begin at home as no one feels the pain better than the one who wears the shoes.



Reform comes in so many forms ranging from religious reforms which entail the churches and mosque or electoral reforms which entail politics or tax reforms to monetary to wall street reform to land reform to catalytic reforms and so much more in terms of reformation. Even we humans at some point in life need reformation but today we are not going to be talking all these reforms since our major focus for the day is on the need for educational reforms in a country called Tanzania.

Now let begin by saying that Education aside being key has had it challenges in Tanzania both the good, the bad and ugly side of it, which is not to say that every nation is free from challenges but to some extent, some appear more major than others.


Before independence, Tanzania formerly Tanganyika had her own ways of life from culture to moral values to skills and other ways of life. But from the arrival of colonial masters to independence and till date the stages of education had taken so many shapes on reforms and we are going to be looking at that major reforms that have taken center stage since they gained independence.

The need for reforms was very crucial dating to the fact that after independence Tanzania had only 2 engineers and just 12 doctors, coupled with the fact that adult literacy was low, about 17%. Now, this great challenges added up the urgency in the need for a total reform in it education sector through policy changes and in the year 1967 a few years after independence, the nation had adopted a self-reliance education policy system.

Then it also increased focus on building a new nation workforce. Going further, education in Tanzania has its roots or genesis from there colonial masters and a very few were opportune to receive education then for so many reasons which majorly falls to enlightenment.

After the nation’s independence, the government of Tanzania had introduced major reforms to serve Tanzania’s socio-economic and political needs in order to improve the nation’s economy too. This coupled with addressing the needs of the society at large which is a burden that lies heavily on the government. In addition to this, this reforms serves as means to remove colonial authority, provide a means to economic development and to address the needs of the society.

Unfortunately, these reforms haven’t done the much-needed justice it should and the need for more reforms should be established and infused with more ideas.

The reason being that Tanzania even with it current reforms, still has many challenges and characteristics of the colonial education system.

Now let take a look at the highs and lows of the 1980s. Another major force which brought the need for a reform was the decline in growth, trade and stagnant revenue base and worse still was those donor countries who were supporting the expansion of schools in the whole country by providing capital cost began to withdraw there support and the burden alone fell upon the government at a moment they had a small tax base population growth which stands at about 3% this also played a set back.

From the 90s, enrolment in primary schools declined from 100% to 82% then the level of illiteracy went up from 10% in 1982 to 16% in 1992.


As the nation continues to face major challenges in it educational sector, the need for policies to make changes had to come into plan. In the year 1997 Tanzania developed the basic education master plan policy to ensure growth and equitable access to high-quality formal education and adult literacy through facility expansion, efficiency gains, and quality improvements. So in implementing these policies, less developed districts and regions were given priority and preference in opening up new secondary schools by receiving government assistance to do just that.

In conclusion of Our Discussion on Education Reforms in Tanzania Since Independence ;

Reform is a solution to the current crisis facing the nation rising from the educational sector and over time it has had a better result but there is the need for more effort to be put in place to savage every problem facing the educational sector in Tanzania. We know the Tanzanian government can not do it alone due to other major challenges facing the nation but first, they need to see the importance of an education reform and making every possible effort as to make it a reality.


Tags: Education Reform In Tanzania Since Independence

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Updated: October 26, 2017 — 2:30 pm

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